Beatriz Fernández-Muñoz, PhD, Andalusian Network of Design and Translation of Advanced Therapies, Seville, Spain, discusses the isolation of neural stem cells (NSCs) from the cerebrospinal fluid of preterm infants with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). Since this fluid is routinely collected during therapeutic neuroendoscopic lavage and typically discarded, there are fewer ethical concerns associated with this source of NSCs. Recent research has demonstrated that these NSCs can be expanded, cryopreserved and differentiated into neurons and glia, and do not for tumors when transplanted into mice. Ongoing pre-clinical research aims to evaluate the potential of this cell source in the development of cell therapies for preterm infants with IVH. This interview took place at the International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR) 2021 Annual Meeting.