Michela Consonni, PhD, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Millan, Italy, comments on what needs to be addressed to optimize chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell and T-cell receptor (TCR) therapies for leukemias and lymphomas. Further research is required to discover novel antigen targets solely expressed on tumors to avoid off-target side effects and to prevent antigen escape. Additional TCRs are also necessary for TCR-T cells to be compatible with a wider range of human leukocyte antigens (HLAs). Dr Consonni additionally highlights the risk of graft versus host disease (GvHD) in patients receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). This interview took place at the International Conference on Lymphocyte Engineering (ICLE) 2022.