Whilst stem cells such as mesenchymal stem cells have proven to be safe in clinical trials, various issues need to be addressed to successfully develop cellular therapies for central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Anne des Rieux, PhD, Université catholique de Louvain, Louvain, Belgium, describes various barriers associated with using stem cells in CNS diseases. Large scale manufacturing of stems cells remain limited, due to logistical constraints and cell contamination. Dr des Rieux additionally highlights the need to improve delivery systems and the advantages of using allogeneic cells. This interview took place at the 6th World Congress of the Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine International Society (TERMIS 2021).